Through the long hot summer the animals toiled on the farm except for the pigs who supervised the work.
The hardest worker of all was Boxer the horse, who was admired by all the other animals.
At the end of the summer, their hard work produced bumper levels of food, and all the animals played their part, even the ducks and hens that
cleared the fields of every stalk and seed.
Soon, most of the animals were able to read and write, although the pigs were most adept at this.
An additional slogan was added to the Commandments that read, “Four legs good, two legs bad”.
The sheep got into the habit of bleating this slogan incessantly.
Sunday was set aside as a day of rest, and breakfast was held later, followed by a meeting where the work rotas for the forthcoming week were
The animals noticed that there was not a distribution of milk and apples amongst all the animals, and Squealer was given the task of explaining
to the other animals that the pigs, being brain workers, required these items in order to keep them healthy. He threatened the animals that if the farm was to fail through the pigs’ poor health,
then Jones might be able to gain control of Animal Farm.
We now witness the slow erosion of the original ideals of the Animal Farm society.
The pigs already hold an elite position and although their management position is accepted by the rest of the animals, they are less happy about
them receiving the privilege of having sole access to the milk and apples.
During the summer months, the animals experience a level of happiness not previously enjoyed on the farm. Although they are working hard
apart from the pigs, their efforts bear fruit in the fact that there will be sufficient food to carry them through the winter months.
There is a general feeling of well-being amongst most of the animals, but there are ominous indications that this will be the peak of the society
and that disruptive times are ahead.
The reader may note the sinister actions of Napoleon who takes responsibility in rearing the puppies.
We also see Napoleon’s hand behind Squealer’s actions in trying to placate the animals regarding the distribution of milk and apples.
There is also the start of the power struggle between Napoleon and Snowball, who never seem to be able to agree at the Sunday meetings.
This power struggle is, of course, a representation between the struggles in Russia involving Trotsky and Stalin, following the death of Lenin.
The animals feel that they are being given more independence because they are now able to read and write, but this is a fallacy, as the power
clearly rests with the pigs that are controlled by Napoleon and Snowball.
Just as Russia had its slogans during the early years of communism, so does the society on Animal Farm with the “Four legs good, two legs bad”
Much store is also placed in symbolism, and the pigs introduce the flag that signifies the animals’ revolt, and honors Old Major who instigated
The irony in this Chapter is the fact that the animals are still exploited, for the humans have been replaced by the pigs.
Boxer is the animal that is most duped. His immense physical strength enables him to carry out a great deal of work, but this is coupled with a placid nature, and he is therefore easily manipulated.
The reader realizes that there is going to be a climax in the relationship between Snowball and Napoleon, because they are unable to negotiate
and come to a consensus, as Napoleon in particular regards negotiation as a sign of weakness.
At present Napoleon is astute enough to realize that Snowball is the innovator and organizes the animals with great effect, but soon his usefulness will diminish.
We also see the emergence of Squealer who plays a pivotal role in this society.
His main attribute is his brilliant rhetoric and he is to some extent able to appease the other animals by cleverly distorting Major’s original plan. Napoleon uses Squealer, just as Hitler used Goebbels as his Minister of Propaganda.