Having died almost four hundred years ago, the works of William Shakespeare
are still widely performed, adapted and read throughout the world. This is testimony to his genius and his position must be as one of the greatest literary figures of any age.
He was a prolific writer, composing thirty-seven plays over his life.
Like all great men, he has received criticism over the years as to whether
he had the ability to produce all the work attributed to him. In the absence of any concrete proof to the contrary, it is safe to attribute all his work to Shakespeare’s pen.
He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon, England on 23rd April 1564. His father was a dealer in grain and his mother was the daughter of a prosperous farmer. It is likely that he received a good education and this was probably obtained at King’s New School, being the local Grammar School. However, there is evidence to show that the family’s fortunes did decline and that Shakespeare was unable to complete his schooling.
In November 1582 he married Anne Hathaway and they had a daughter, Susanna,
six months later. This supports the theory that the marriage was, perhaps, forced on William Shakespeare. They had twins later named Hamnet and Judith. Hamnet died at the age of eleven.
Little is known about Shakespeare’s life between 1585 and 1592. Some
scholars think he may have been a soldier, this being based on the detail contained in Henry IV and Henry V, concerning the corruption involved in army life.
He also worked as an actor and this led him to the city lights of London.
By the year 1599 it is clear that Shakespeare was a wealthy man because he
applied to the College of Heralds for a Coat of Arms for his family. He also purchased a substantial property in Stratford.
In July 1605, Shakespeare paid '440 for the lease of a large portion of
tithes (taxes) on real estate in the Stratford area. This meant that he received a 10% income from the agricultural products obtained from the land. He was able to double his capital investment.
On 25th March 1616, Shakespeare revised his last Will and Testament and he died on 23rd April in the same year. His body was laid to rest in Holy Trinity Church, Stratford.
Shakespeare did not start his work as an actor and playwright until the
early 1590’s, but he enjoyed almost immediate success, soon becoming the most popular artist in England, and part owner of the Globe Theatre.
This has been carefully restored to its former glory and is an important theatrical venue in London. Both Elizabeth I, and James I patronized him, and it was the latter monarch who gave Shakespeare the great honor of being a King’s Player. By 1594 he had become a member of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men.
His works were collected and printed in various editions in the centuries
following his death, and by the beginning of the eighteenth century, his work had a worldwide reputation.
It is evident that some of his work may have been lost, but he can claim to have composed thirty-seven plays and one hundred and fifty-four sonnets. The sonnets were first published in 1609 and stand among the finest works of English poetry. The plays are divided into four groups – historical plays, comedies, tragedies and late romances. Most of these were drawn from existing sources. The first collected edition of plays was published in 1623. Much of his work as a playwright stands the test of time, and can easily be successfully adapted to the modern age.
Stratford-upon-Avon is the home of the Royal Shakespeare Company (R.S.C.)
and still actively keeps Shakespeare’s work alive. It is the ambition of many an actor worldwide to appear in a Shakespeare play at Stratford with the R.S.C., and some of the greatest actors of the twentieth
century started their careers with the R.S.C.
‘Macbeth’ is the third of
Shakespeare’s plays that deals with monarchies, following on from Hamlet and King Lear. It was probably written around 1605 and was firstly performed for King James I around about 1607, just shortly after Guy
Fawkes and some other conspirators were caught plotting to kill the King. These conspirators were Roman Catholic activists.
‘Macbeth’ was clearly a controversial play, dealing with the assassination
of a King, but one can assume that Shakespeare intended the play to compliment monarchs, and it is no co-incidence that James I was descended from Scottish ancestry. No doubt the subject of the early Kings of
Scotland would be interesting to the King.
It should be noted that Shakespeare quotes directly from James I’s Handbook,
which gives details on good government, in the play ‘Macbeth’.
As with the other works of Shakespeare, there have been numerous adaptations
and films over the years. Notable films are ‘Throne of Blood’ by Akiro Kurosawa, 1957 and ‘Macbeth’ by Roman Polanski, 1971.
Arguably the best portrayal of the title role was by Orson Welles in a black and white film, which provided a realistic atmosphere.
There is a great deal of superstition about this play and actors believe it to be bad luck to mention
‘Macbeth’, so they refer to it as ‘The Scottish Play’.